Understanding what referencing involves
Do you know how to refer to what you have read in your academic work, and do you understand the difference between the various methods of doing this?
Read these four short explanations of different concepts to do with the task of referencing. For each, choose the concept that is being described from the dropdown list and then check your answers.
is rewriting another person's opinion in your own words, and including the appropriate reference details (name, date of publication).
is copying word for word what another person has said and putting them in "quotation" marks followed by the appropriate reference details.
is copying another person's idea or using their exact words, without reference details. This may be seen as 'stealing' someone's ideas and is not allowed.
is a full list of the details of books and journal articles etc that you have referred to in a piece of academic writing or used as background reading. It is included at the end of your writing.
Identifying examples of paraphrase, quotation and plagiarism
In this activity you are going to practise identifying examples of quotation, paraphrase and plagiarism in student writing.
Read this original text taken from a course textbook on how police and governments tackle crime. Compare it with the four extracts from student essays that follow. Decide if each student's use of the original text is quotation, paraphrase or plagiarism and select the appropriate button. Then read the feedback.
Original text (Calder, 2007):
There is an understandable tendency to focus on the most serious crimes as these tend to be the most shocking and attention grabbing. Newspapers, for example, are most likely to report major crimes such as murders or large scale theft, rather than minor pick-pocketing. This seems to be an erroneous approach, and new evidence is emerging to suggest that governments would be wise to instruct their police services to focus on minor crimes. If criminals are caught committing low-level crimes, they are less likely to progress to major crimes and therefore it reduces crimes levels as a whole.
Student extract 1:
Focussing on tacking major crimes is an erroneous approach, and new evidence is emerging to suggest that governments would be wise to instruct their police services to focus on minor crimes.